Firstly, as inductive/descriptive cases – akin to Eckstein’s configurative-idiographic cases – whereby they are highly descriptive, lacking in an explicit theoretical framework and therefore taking the form of “total history”. Owen (1994) and Layne’s (1994) contradictory process tracing results of interdemocratic war-avoidance during the Anglo-American crisis of 1861 to 1863 – from liberal and realist standpoints respectively – are a useful example. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to (2008) ‘Deviant Democratization in India’, Democratization, 15, 4, 733-749. As the previous section suggests, this critique seems somewhat unfair; many contemporary case study practitioners – and representing various strands of IR theory – have increasingly sought to clarify and develop their methodological techniques and epistemological grounding (Bennett and Elman, 2010: 499-500). Stake identifies three types of case study: intrinsic case study, instrumental case study, and collective case study. Gerring, J. Applying specifically to the state of the field in contemporary IR, Bennett and Elman identify a ‘third generation’ of mainstream qualitative scholars – rooted in a pragmatic scientific realist epistemology and advocating a pluralistic approach to methodology – that have, over the last fifteen years, “revised or added to essentially every aspect of traditional case study research methods” (2010: 502). ), Evaluation Studies Review Annual, 1, 140 - 157. Given that this paper is directed towards the particular sub-field of International Relations, it suggests Bennett and Elman’s (2010) more discipline-specific understanding of contemporary case study methods as an analytical framework. ", "We tout case study as being noninterventive and empathic. It is published as part of our mission to showcase peer-leading papers written by students during their studies. 2)." It helps us think precisely and communicate our thoughts to others. Stake, R. (2003). It may be that theories which pass a single crucial case study test, for example, require rare antecedent conditions and therefore actually have little explanatory range. Assertions: "On the basis of observations and other data, researchers draw their own conclusions (p. However, whereas the latter obviously tend toward an explicitly-acknowledged interpretive basis for meanings, reasons, and understandings: “quantitative measures appear objective, but only so long as we don’t ask questions about where and how the data were produced… pure objectivity is not a meaningful concept if the goal is to measure intangibles [as] these concepts only exist because we can interpret them” (Berg and Lune, 2010: 340). Thirdly, in methodological terms, given that the case study has often been seen as more of an interpretivist and idiographic tool, it has also been associated with a distinctly qualitative approach (Bryman, 2009: 67-68). (2012) Social Research Methods. Potential advantages of a single case study are seen in the detailed description and analysis to gain a better understanding of ‘‘how’’ and ‘‘why’’ things happen. With regard to the first point, the prototypical view here is that of Zeev Maoz (2002: 164-165), who suggests that “the use of the case study absolves the author from any kind of methodological considerations. What these publications have in common is that case study revolves around four key features. a nation-state, revolution, political party, election, or person – observed at a single point in time or over some delimited period of time” (2004: 342). In summary, the various forms of single case study analysis can – through the application of multiple qualitative and/or quantitative research methods – provide a nuanced, empirically-rich, holistic account of specific phenomena. This is, they suggest, due in no small part to the considerable advantages that case study methods in particular have to offer in studying the “complex and relatively unstructured and infrequent phenomena that lie at the heart of the subfield” (Bennett and Elman, 2007: 171). I have heard others sing the praises of different works and I have referred to them, but favor the two mentioned." (2006b) ‘Single-Outcome Studies: A Methodological Primer’, International Sociology, 21, 5, 707-734. Introduction: An Intensive Study of Case Study Research Methods, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, EDU105, Tampa, FL 33620  |  rebeccaburns@usf.edu, 19901999, 1995, case study, constructivism, constructivist, relativity, researcher roles, StakeR, 19901999, 1995, case study, interpretation, qualitative research, qualitative vs quantitative, research methodology, StakeR, subjectivity, "Case study is the study of the particularity and complexity of a single case, coming to understand its activity within important circumstances (xi). Another frequently cited proponent of the approach, Robert Stake, notes that as a form of research the case study “is defined by interest in an individual case, not by the methods of inquiry used”, and that “the object of study is a specific, unique, bounded system” (2008: 443, 445). ", "The case is a specific, a complex, functioning thing (p. bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view. Although the use of multiple methods is considered one of the strengths of case study research (Yin, 2003), a single data collection method is also possible. The purpose of this case study is to understand something else by understanding it. Case study. It is “a common misconception”, he notes, “that the various research methods should be arrayed hierarchically… many social scientists still deeply believe that case studies are only appropriate for the exploratory phase of an investigation” (Yin, 2009: 6). Robert Donmoyer. 12). The case should maximize what can be learned. thing, a single entity, a unit around which there are boundaries” (p. 27). Cornell University Press: Ithaca. "...we need to pick cases which are easy to get to and hospitable to our inquiry, perhaps for which a prospective informant can be identified and with actors willing to comment on certain draft materials (p. This is, as Eckstein noted, “that it is economical for all resources: money, manpower, time, effort… especially important, of course, if studies are inherently costly, as they are if units are complex collective individuals” (1975: 149-150, emphasis added). As Gerring puts it, “theory confirmation/disconfirmation is not the case study’s strong suit” (2004: 350). Define the Main Principles, and Analyse the Advantages and Limitations of One of the Following Research Methods: (i) Single Case Study Analysis. S T A K E ( 1 9 9 5 ) The art of case study research 5/1/2014 1 Prepared by Pavan Soni (IIM Bangalore) 2. It is perhaps better to think of case studies as transparadigmatic; it is mistaken to assume single case study analysis to adhere exclusively to a qualitative methodology (or an interpretivist epistemology) even if it – or rather, practitioners of it – may be so inclined. There are, however, three important qualifiers to the argument about generalisation that deserve particular mention here. In R. Gomm, M. Hammersley, and P. Foster (eds) Case Study Method. Ch. The second part then looks to the principal single case study types and their associated advantages, including those from within the recent ‘third generation’ of qualitative International Relations (IR) research. Single case study analysis has, however, been subject to a number of criticisms, the most common of which concern the inter-related issues of methodological rigour, researcher subjectivity, and external validity. One of the principal reasons for this, he argues, is the relationship between the use of case studies in social research and the differing epistemological traditions – positivist, interpretivist, and others – within which it has been utilised. The latter are those focused studies that reflect upon a larger population and are more concerned with generalisation, as is often so with more positivist approaches[2]. Verschuren, P. J. M. (2003) ‘Case study as a research strategy: some ambiguities and opportunities’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 6, 2, 121-139. First, case study examines a specific phenomenon in detail by performing an indepth and intensive analysis of the selected case. The term ‘case study’, John Gerring has suggested, is “a definitional morass… Evidently, researchers have many different things in mind when they talk about case study research” (2006a: 17). It is important to note, however, that – whereas Gerring refers to a single unit of analysis – it may be that attention also necessarily be given to particular sub-units. What Status Should Case Studies Be Given in the Study of Comparative Politics? Maoz, Z. . Open University Press: Maidenhead. Tales of the field: On writing ethnography. ), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. Van Evera, S. (1997) Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science. Finally, it should not be ignored that a signal advantage of the case study – with particular relevance to international relations – also exists at a more practical rather than theoretical level. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Parlett, M., & Hamilton, D. (1976). Stake, R. (1995). "Seldom is an entirely new understanding reached but refinement of understanding is (p. “When the purpose of case study is to go beyond the case, we call it ‘instrumental’ case study. Any (2004) ‘What is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?’, American Political Science Review, 98, 2, 341-354. Berg, B. and Lune, H. (2012) Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. As Gerring rightly observes of this potential for falsification: “a positivist orientation toward the work of social science militates toward a greater appreciation of the case study format, not a denigration of that format, as is usually supposed” (Gerring, 2007: 247, emphasis added). (2006) ‘Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 12, 2, 219-245. 2016; Stake 2005: 454). (2006a) Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. Gerring, J. Stake, R. (1994). Case study is a . In N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (eds) Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. How is it that one case can reliably offer anything beyond the particular? As noted above, a lack of consensus still exists within the wider social science literature on the principles and purposes – and by extension the advantages and limitations – of case study research. Levy (2008) neatly refers to the inferential logic of the least-likely case as the ‘Sinatra inference’ – if a theory can make it here, it can make it anywhere. It involves providing not only a coherent explanation of the key sequential steps in a hypothesised process, but also sensitivity to alternative explanations as well as potential biases in the available evidence (Bennett and Elman 2010: 503-504). Progressive focusing, termed by Malcolm Parlett and David Hamilton in 1976, is when the design is altered because early questions are not working or new issues arise. ", "By custom, researchers are privileged to assert what they find meaningful as a result of their inquiries. We try hard to understand how the actors, the people being studied, see things. Oxford University Press: Oxford. Bennett, A. and Elman, C. (2010) Case Study Methods. Providing a complete portal to the world of case study research, the Fourth Edition of Robert K. Yin’s bestselling text Case Study Research offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method as a valid research tool. ", "Grand generalizations also can be modified by case study (p. As such, three key points can be derived from this – respectively concerning issues of ontology, epistemology, and … Performance Research of Private Investment—Case Study of Nanjing Jianfei Leng, Qun Zhang, Pei Tang DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.410066 3,035 Downloads 3,415 Views Citations Even though it is not as structured and detailed as Yin’s case study protocol, Stake’s . [1] The paper follows convention by differentiating between ‘International Relations’ as the academic discipline and ‘international relations’ as the subject of study. There are, regardless, plenty such as Bent Flyvbjerg (2006: 237) who suggest that the case study contains no greater bias toward verification than other methods of inquiry, and that “on the contrary, experience indicates that the case study contains a greater bias toward falsification of preconceived notions than toward verification”. Having elucidated the defining principles of the single case study approach, the paper now turns to an overview of its main benefits. Bennett, A. and Elman, C. (2006b) ‘Complex Causal Relations and Case Study Methods: The Example of Path Dependence’, Political Analysis, 14, 3, 250-267. Divided into three inter-related sections, the paper therefore begins by first identifying the underlying principles that serve to constitute the case study as a particular research strategy, noting the somewhat contested nature of the approach in ontological, epistemological, and methodological terms. See resource below. The former refers to those which purport to explain only a single case, are concerned with particularisation, and hence are typically (although not exclusively) associated with more interpretivist approaches. Show page numbers . Merriam and Stake, three leading case study methodol-ogists). Imperialism’s Legacy in the Study of Contemporary Politics: The Case of Hegemonic Stability Theory, Terrorists or Freedom Fighters: A Case Study of ETA, A Critical Assessment of Eco-Marxism: A Ghanaian Case Study, An Evaluation of National Party System Europeanization: A Case Study of Croatia, Water Crisis or What are Crises? Eckstein’s four other types of case study, meanwhile, promote a more nomothetic (and positivist) usage. By extension, it can therefore be incorporated by a range of contemporary mainstream IR theories. In: Case Study Method . The Art of Case Study Research by Robert Stake (1995) 1. As such, the association of case study analysis with a qualitative approach is a “methodological affinity, not a definitional requirement” (Gerring, 2006a: 36). Geertz, C. (1973) The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays by Clifford Geertz. [3] These may be unique in the idiographic sense, or in nomothetic terms as an exception to the generalising suppositions of either probabilistic or deterministic theories (as per deviant cases, below). Chapter 1: The Unique Case "The case is a specific, a complex, functioning thing (p. However, as Yin notes, case studies can – like all forms of social science research – be exploratory, descriptive, and/or explanatory in nature. Search form. Maanen, J. V. (1988). Download PDF . The art of case study research. Ch. people), a single case study is the best choice (Yin, 2003). In single case study research, the opportunity to open a black box arises by looking at deeper causes of the phenomenon (Fiss 2009). What this definition usefully captures is that case studies are intended – unlike more superficial and generalising methods – to provide a level of detail and understanding, similar to the ethnographer Clifford Geertz’s (1973) notion of ‘thick description’, that allows for the thorough analysis of the complex and particularistic nature of distinct phenomena. They identify ‘process tracing’ as having emerged from this as a central method of within-case analysis. An intrinsic case study occurs when the researcher has an intrinsic interest in the case. Such an observation assumes a polarity and stems from a particular view of research. Gerring, J. Diamond, J. Layne, C. (1994) ‘Kant or Cant: The Myth of the Democratic Peace’, International Security, 19, 2, 5-49. 21/2012, School for International Studies, Simon Fraser University: Vancouver. An instrumental case study occurs when we need to understand the case in order to understand the bigger research question at hand. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 9). Bennett and Elman (2010: 505-506) also identify the advantages of single case studies that are implicitly comparative: deviant, most-likely, least-likely, and crucial cases. In G. Glass (Ed. As Andrew Bennett and Colin Elman have recently noted, qualitative research methods presently enjoy “an almost unprecedented popularity and vitality… in the international relations sub-field”, such that they are now “indisputably prominent, if not pre-eminent” (2010: 499). Case study research is suitable for answering questions that start with how, who and why. 134 - 164). Of course, this also points to the very serious limitation, as hinted at with the case of India above, that poor case selection may alternatively lead to overgeneralisation and/or grievous misunderstandings of the relationship between variables or processes (Bennett and Elman, 2006a: 460-463). Robert E. Stake's The Art of Case Study Research (1995). The two sources on which I depended most heavily were Robert E. Stake's The Art of Case Study Research and Harry F. Wolcott's Writing Up Qualitative Research. As opposed to the opportunity this presented primarily for theory application, Eckstein identified heuristic case studies as explicit theoretical stimulants – thus having instead the intended advantage of theory-building. This book presents a disciplined, qualitative exploration of case study methods by drawing from naturalistic, holistic, ethnographic, phenomenological and biographic research methods. For STAKE case study research is "the study of the particularity and complexity of a single case, coming to understand its activity within important circumstances" (p.xi). research design best defined as an intensive study of a single unit (a relatively bounded phenomenon) where the scholar’s aim is to elucidate features of a larger class of similar phenomenon. King, G., Keohane, R. O. and Verba, S. (1994) Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. This may be particularly appropriate for those phenomena that are simply less amenable to more superficial measures and tests (or indeed any substantive form of quantification) as well as those for which our reasons for understanding and/or explaining them are irreducibly subjective – as, for example, with many of the normative and ethical issues associated with the practice of international relations. At first it was a usefu Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage. the-art-of-case-study-research-by-robert-e-stake 1/1 Downloaded from calendar.pridesource.com on November 13, 2020 by guest [DOC] The Art Of Case Study Research By Robert E Stake Getting the books the art of case study research by robert e stake now is not type of challenging means. "Case study is the study of the particularity and complexity of a single case, coming to understand its activity within important circumstances (xi)." Firstly were so-called configurative-idiographic studies, distinctly interpretivist in orientation and predicated on the assumption that “one cannot attain prediction and control in the natural science sense, but only understanding (verstehen)… subjective values and modes of cognition are crucial” (1975: 132). Stake, R. E. (2008) Qualitative Case Studies. 12). Another frequently cited proponent of the approach, Robert Stake, notes that as a form of research the case study “is defined by interest in an individual case, not by the methods of inquiry used”, and that “the object of study is a specific, unique, bounded system” (2008: 443, 445). Basic Books Inc: New York. The case As Gerring puts it, a case study should be “an intensive study of a single unit… a spatially bounded phenomenon – e.g. Case study research has a long history within the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, dating back to the early 1920's. The question of researcher subjectivity is a valid one, and it may be intended only as a methodological critique of what are obviously less formalised and researcher-independent methods (Verschuren, 2003). As with the case of Indian democratisation above, it would logically be preferable to conduct large-N analysis beforehand to identify that state’s non-representative nature in relation to the broader population. Bennett, A. and Elman, C. (2006a) ‘Qualitative Research: Recent Developments in Case Study Methods’, Annual Review of Political Science, 9, 455-476. Whether or not single case studies are used in this fashion, they clearly have a great deal to offer. Within-case process tracing has also been identified as advantageous in addressing the complexity of path-dependent explanations and critical junctures – as for example with the development of political regime types – and their constituent elements of causal possibility, contingency, closure, and constraint (Bennett and Elman, 2006b). From within a holistic perspective and direct perception, there is No disjunction new approach to the of... ( 2008 ) note, the people being studied, see things occurs when intention. ) Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research Methods for the following.. Crucial-Case Method? ’, Democratization, 15, 4, 733-749: design and Methods become in many a! Particular mention here and beyond the scope of much of this distinction, and collective case study revolves four. Occurs when the researcher has an intrinsic interest in the case in his 1994 chapter `` Seeking Water... 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